Types of Anesthesia Masks to Be Used during Surgical Interventions

anesthesia mask

Anesthesia is highly important during most surgeries in order to eliminate pain. In most cases physicians use general anesthesia that helps in making a person fall asleep, thus eliminating the slightest possibilities of movement.

For these purposes they use an anesthesia mask that carries air mixed with special medication. In fact, some patients even get a chance to choose their favorite scent in order to flavor the air that is flowing through a special mask. As soon as the medication is given, there aren’t any needs to make shots, while the patient is still awake.

When going to sleep some patients are willing to take off the mask. This is a usual reaction of most people. Some start gagging, coughing, complaining about the smell and even saying they cannot breathe. These are also the usual reactions. Normally, it takes up to 90 seconds before a person falls asleep.


Black Anesthesia Mask

What is this? This is the sort of mask that was used in the earlier part of the century, when anesthetic was usually issued through a special inhalation process versus an intravenous distribution.

black anesthesia mask

Such masks are made of a latex and durable rubber combination. They are placed over the nose, so the medication is breathed in, when it is pumped from a bag attached to the mask’s base. In most cases dental offices use these masks along with light sedation for some painful procedures.


Laryngeal Mask Anesthesia

During many surgeries they used the laryngoscope and tracheal tube. As a rule, this combination resulted in a variety of complications, including cough and sore throat, vocal cord paralysis, etc. In order to replace the use the laryngoscope and tracheal tube, they created a laryngeal mask airway (LMA). This is a safe device that can be freely used with many patients undergoing a surgery.

FYI, such devices are very helpful both for cases of general anesthesia and those of emergency airway maintenance. They were firstly introduced in 1981 by Brain, but in clinical practice it appeared 7 years later.

Since that time LMs have undergone multiple transformations and modifications in order to suit all the modern requirements and difficult airway situations. In order to find the most optimal method for LMA insertion in a vast number of situations specialists have studied different insertion techniques and induction methods. As for now they differentiate five main types of laryngeal masks:

  1. classical
  2. intubating
  3. proseal
  4. reinforced
  5. disposable

A classical mask is a rubber tube that has a silicon cuff at the distal end. It fits around the glottic opening and can be freely inserted blindly. So, the risks of laryngoscopy or intubation are thus prevented. Such masks can be sterilized 40 times.

The disposable type is similar to classical. The only difference is the fact it can be used only once.

An intubating mask is an advanced type with a shorter tube and a special metal handle that allows a single insertion without moving a patient with a limited mouth opening or an unstable spine. There is a special 8 mm silicone tube with an introducer available.

laryngeal mask anesthesia

A proseal type has an additional tube that opens at the cuff’s tip at the distal end. The second end opens to the atmosphere. It is created to help the draining out of regurgitant as well as preventing aspiration in obstetric patients. The anesthesia mask has an orogastric tube that is passed through it easily.

And finally, a reinforced mask. This is a non-kickable tube that has a spirally wound metal wire. It is recognized as effective in the procedures of the neck and head, where the face is covered with drapes and the airway access is pretty difficult.


Rubber Anesthesia Mask

This is an old-fashioned anesthesia device. It came from those times, when the masks were made of black rubber. This type is characterized by the presence of a separate harness piece that holds it in place and is mod to fit any avatar. The attached circuit is flexi.

Such masks can interact with Mercy gas machines. When an appropriate gas mix is selected, it makes patient feel sleepy and close their eyes.

All masks are equally efficient. But as there are many types of surgeries and injuries, doctors choose the type that suits the needs and situation best.


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